Dental cyst treatment
In our clinic, dental cyst treatment is performed by using effective techniques which allow lump removal. A liquid-filled cavity can be located in the root zone, in canals or in gum tissues.A lump is surrounded by a dense sac keeping exudate and toxins from entering adjacent tissues. If a cyst is left untreated, tumour inflamamtion may result in tooth removal.
Types of dental cysts
Tumours are classified according to their location, treatment complexity and causes of formation.
Dental cyst treatment is prescribed if the following tumors are discovered:
- Follicular cyst: a sac like cavity enclosing an inflamed unerupted tooth, usually its crown.
- Radicular cyst: it is formed at the root apex due to a root canal infection.
- Retromolar cyst: it appears because of the eruption of the eighth tooth associated with complications and tissue infection.
- Residual cyst: it is necessary to remove a dental cyst formed as a result of damaged tooth extraction or improper therapy.
- Cyst of origin: it is formed from the follicle tissue because of a tooth development anomaly.
- Eruption cyst: it appears in children during the transitional dentition period.
The cyst removal strategy is selected taking into account its location. A tumour can be located in the area of the eighth tooth, on the anterior teeth and in the upper jaw.
- More than 0.8 cm — true cyst;
- From 0.5 to 0.8 cm — cystogranuloma;
- Less than 0.5 cm — granuloma.
The type and size of the tumour are determined after an X-ray examination. The specific treatment or removal is prescribed based on the clinical picture.
Causes of formation
A tumour is the result of bacterial activity which occurs on a dead or defective tooth.
- Periodontits, pulptis: infection has spread outside the roots.
- Chronic diseases in the nasal pharynx: rhinitis, tonsillitis, maxillary sinusitis, sinusitis.
- Weak immunity, hormonal problems.
- Jaw and tooth injuries.
- Incorrect dental treatment strategy.
- Dental anomalies in milk and wisdom teeth.
The disease can be exacerbated by a common cold, hypothermia and a change of climate.
At the initial stage, tumours cannot be diagnosed without a special examination. When the disease is worsening, warning signs will appear:
- A nagging pain, which intensifies during chewing and is not relieved by taking common pain medications.
- Redness: the gum changes its colour.
- Fistulous passage: a canal appears and pus is discharged.
- A high temperature during an exacerbation of the disease.
- Nasal discharge: pus and mucus in case of a maxillary tumour.
In some cases, patients complain about having headaches which are localized in the temporal and eye regions. In case of soft tissue oedema, facial asymmetry is observed. Tapping (percussion) or applying strong pressure results in a sharp or shooting pain. If pus has been formed in the infected area, the person will be experiencing a feeling of fullness in the jaw and the tooth becomes mobile.
The treatment strategy and price depend on the size of the tumour, its location and the course of the disease.
Therapy is possible if the tumour diameter does not exceed 0.8 cm, and the doctor can access the cavity through the canal, which is not filled. In this approach, the affected zone is treated with an antiseptic with subsequent cleaning and pus drainage. The cavity is filled with a bone tissue substitute and the canal is filled.
Treatment under the microscope gives a higher success rate.
Surgical removal of tumours involves the following techniques:
- Cystostomy: this procedure is applied for large sized tumours. The tumour will not be completely removed, so there is a high risk of developing a defect in the jaw. The surgeon will obtain access to the cavity through the gum and remove the front wall of the sac to create fluid outflow.
- Cystectomy: this procedure involves cutting into the cyst with subsequent exudate drainage. The gum and the root are treated with an antiseptic and stitches are applied. The procedure is minimally traumatic and effective.
- Hemisection: this procedure is used to remove tumours from roots and gums, when the doctor eliminates the tumour and exsects the roots adjacent to the affected zone and the coronal part. The arch defect is repaired with prostheses. This technique is rarely used.
- The effectiveness of cystectomy and root apex resection is dramatically improved by using an operating microscope.
The most suitable method can be selected only by the dentist after studying the clinical picture and identifying contraindications.
Post-operative recovery from surgical removal
In order to avoid complications and repeat infection of the operating site, it is necessary to follow the dentist’s advice.
These tips will help to speed up recovery:
- Press a swab on the socket and keep it there for at least 15-20 minutes after the intervention.
- Do not eat, drink or rinse your mouth for 3-4 hours.
- Do not consume alcohol or smoke. Avoid eating hot, spicy, savoury or hard food for 3 days.
- Do not use a stiff bristle brush until the wound is skinned over. Rinsing is allowed.
- Chew on the side opposite the wound.
- Rinse up to 4 times a day for 7 days with a solution of salt and chlorhexidine.
- Avoid excess heat or cold. Refrain from taking a sauna or a hot bath.
- In some cases, the dentist may prescribe an antibiotic.
How to avoid cyst formation
Preventive measures may not always ensure against cyst formation. Cysts may appear due to numerous factors, but it is possible to reduce the risk of tumour development by following a few simple rules:
- Visit your dentist at least once every six months.
- Have oral diseases treated timely, e.g. caries and inflammatory processes in the tissues, to avoid root canal infection.
- If periodontitis is diagnosed, start a course of treatment immediately.
- In case of chronic ENT diseases, undergo regular medical checkups by specialist doctors.
- In case of a jaw or tooth injury, visit the dentist.
- Do proper oral hygiene.
- Monitor the course of chronic diseases, diabetes in particular.
- Strengthen your immune system.
- Have dental calculus and plaque removed on a timely basis.
Axioma Dental Clinic in Saint Petersburg would like to invite patients to undergo effective and painless treatment. We offer high-quality dental restoration services.
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