Placing an abutment on a dental implant is a necessary stage of dental implant restoration. An abutment is an intermediary part connecting the implant in the jaw bone with the crown (prosthesis) over the gum. This element acts as a tooth neck fixing the structure and redistributing chewing pressure.
Depending on the implantation and dental prosthetics method, permanent and temporary abutments may be applied. Temporary items are inserted for provisional (preliminary) prosthetics, so that the jaw can be gradually subjected to chewing pressure. Permanent abutments are used when a prosthesis or crown is finally placed. Abutments are manufactured as standard stock or custom-made products.
In terms of their connection with the crown and shape, abutments can be:
- Ball abutments: they are very simple and affordable items. Their drawback is a short service life.
- Angled abutments (multi-unit abutments): they are needed when placing implants into deep bone layers when an orthopaedic structure is to be placed at an angle of 15-45 degrees.
In terms of the material used, the following types of abutments are differentiated:
- Ceramic: they have good aesthetics, but not very strong;
- Titanium: they are strong and durable products. Their appearance may be a drawback, though.
- Zirconium: they are excellent products in every respect; they are good-looking and reliable.
- Hybrid structures: they are made of two different materials: titanium - for strength, and ceramics or zirconium - for aesthetics.
Implant manufacturers produce standard items of different size, height and tilt angle. These items are used in simple clinical situations. Their advantage is a low price and easy application. On the downside, they do not always match individual soft tissue features and may be unsuitable in some clinical situations.
Custom-made abutments are used to ensure more reliable fixation and convenient use. Such items are made individually after taking an impression of the jaw with an implant. This type of product will match the specific characteristics of a clinical situation and location of soft tissues. It is convenient to use, as it will fit ideally in terms of shape and size and will securely connect the crown with the implant. This kind of product is used in complicated clinical situations when using stock items is impossible.
The advantages of placing an implant abutment
Abutments are placed on implants to ensure a proper and natural transition from the post to the crown. An implant restores the root of a tooth, whereas an abutment acts as its neck. It is a support structure for the soft tissues of the gum, ensuring their aesthetics. This element plays a role in forming correct gum contours and gum papillas, which is particularly important in the smile zone. It stops food remnants and filling materials from getting under the gum, makes the whole structure stronger and transfers chewing pressure.
This treatment stage is not difficult but quite significant. There are three fixation methods used:
- Screws: a special screw is used, which is fixed in the implant and the crown. For this purpose, a small hole is made in the crown, which is sealed with a filling at the end of the procedure. Due to the use of the screw, the fixation is very secure. The advantage of this method is that it is easy to remove and replace the prosthesis.
- Cement: it is used in the dental zones with high aesthetic requirements. This method involves placing a special cement material between the crown and the abutment.
Possible complications after the procedure
Complications resulting from placing abutments are very rare. But as with any intervention, there is a risk of an inflammatory process, pain and swelling. Complications include bleeding, seal failure of the structure, falling out or breakage of the abutment, disruption of aesthetics and suture line disruption. In case of any complications, an urgent visit to the doctor is advised.
After placement is done, the dentist will give advice:
- Performing thorough and careful oral hygiene.
- Rinsing the mouth after meals.
- Rinsing the mouth and wearing oral trays with antiseptics 5-6 times a day during the first three days.
- Applying wound-healing ointments and gels on the gum if necessary.
- Taking all drugs prescribed by the doctor.
- Visiting the doctor after healing for a preventive examination.
It is possible to get good quality dental implants and restoration of any number of teeth at Axioma Dental. The price will depend on a few factors: the implant type and procedure, materials used and how complicated the clinical situation is.
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