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Removable dental prostheses

Applying removable dental prostheses makes it possible to restore a dental arch in case of complete or partial edentulism and to correct complicated defects. This orthopaedic structure imitates natural teeth very well and restores the chewing function and aesthetics. It does not take long to get used to it. Eating food becomes convenient and communicating is no longer an embarrassing experience.

Съемные зубные протезы

Why do you need removable dental prostheses?

Removable dental prosthetics can be used for any number of teeth missing in the upper and lower jaws.

Missing teeth lead to the following aggravations:

  • Digestion gets worse, as it is impossible to chew food properly;
  • Arch displacement: because of an empty socket, the neighboring teeth are shifting;
  • Bite disturbance;
  • Jaw bone atrophy: the tissue is losing volume;
  • Dental arch deformation.

Removable dental prostheses prevent the facial contour from changing, which results from complete or partial edentulism. Placing an orthopaedic structure will preserve diction, the ability to eat properly and to smile without discomfort.

It becomes even worse when teeth have been missing for a long time, since it causes concomitant periodontal diseases.

What kinds are there?

The specific type of the structure is selected by the dentist based on the defects and the patient’s condition.

There are different types of fixation:

  1. A fully removable denture: it is fixed to the gum.
  2. A partial denture: fixed to abutment teeth if they are present.
  3. A conditionally removable denture: more secure fixation, more comfortable for the patient. It is required to insert an implant, which will act as a support for a bridge or crowns. It can be removed only by a doctor for prophylaxis.

Fully removable laminar dentures

A system imitating gum tissue is attached to the palate, overlapping it partially. Sometimes a special kind of cement is used. It can be securely fixed to the upper jaw because the chewing pressure is lower. In case of all teeth missing in the lower jaw, All-on-4 implants are recommended. A prosthesis is placed on artificial roots and the structure can only be removed in a dental office.

A removable nylon denture does not damage the gum and is comfortable for a patient to wear.

Partial dentures

This structure is used to eliminate defects if implants are contraindicated. It is fixed to neighbouring crowns with special clips called clammers. It is more commonly used when posterior teeth are missing. The structure is made of nylon or plastic. Filing teeth may be required.

Butterfly

This is similar to a crown and may be required to restore one lost tooth. It can be a temporary solution prior to implant placement (not recommended) or a permanent one if an implant surgery is contraindicated. The denture is fixed with special wings. No filing is required.

Bugel denture

This removable denture does not take long to get used to and can help to get rid of a feeling of discomfort. Its advantage is that it is fixed with a metal arch instead of overlapping the upper jaw palate. The necessary condition is having natural supporting teeth to fix the arch on. The frame will evenly distribute the pressure on the jaw.

Conditionally removable implant-supported denture

This orthopaedic structure can have any length and is securely fixed on inserted artificial roots in the lower and upper jaws. The bridge is not movable. The remaining teeth are preserved due to the correct distribution of pressure. The structure is easy to get used to and helps to eliminate defects permanently. This prosthetic method is preferable due to a long service life of the structure, a perfect fit and ultimate fixation.

What materials are used in fabrication?

The strength and cost of upper and lower dentures depend on the construction material used:

  • Acryl: elastic, good at imitating the gum, prone to wear over time. Convenient to wear.
  • Nylon: soft, easily scratched, prone to colour change and shrinkage.
  • Ceramics: imitates natural shades, not very strong.
  • Composites: polymer compounds containing silicon oxide, porcelain flour, glass and quartz.
  • Zirconium dioxide: high precision, full biocompatibility, resistant to chipping. Difficult to differentiate from natural teeth.
  • Metal ceramics: wear resistant, strong substructure.
  • Metal: practically does not deform, has a long service life, strong but unaesthetic.

Before choosing a material, the doctor assesses aesthetic requirements and the service life of the structure.

Contraindications

Removable dentures are contraindicated in the following cases:

  • Tuberculosis in an acute form.
  • Oncology.
  • Immune deficiency.
  • Allergy to materials.
  • Central nervous system diseases.

It is necessary to postpone any kind of prosthetics during pregnancy, exacerbation of chronic diseases and radiation therapy. Inform the dentist of any medication you are taking or acute respiratory viral infections.

How to take care

  1. After meals: rinsing the mouth, washing the denture under running water.
  2. Hygiene twice a day: cleaning with a soft brush to avoid scratching.
  3. Paste: lowest abrasivity; standard or whitening paste is unacceptable. Kid’s or special varieties are a good option.
  4. Special preparations containing antiseptics and proteolytic enzymes are to be used once or twice a week.
  5. Professional cleaning of the structure by the dentist once every six months.

A denture is to be stored in a damp environment, which will reduce the risk of deformation. Special solutions or water will be suitable.

Frequently asked questions

What kinds of food are not recommended?  

To avoid damage, refrain from eating sticky, viscous and very hard food, such as dried bread and nuts. Vegetables, fruit, meat and fish are fine.

Shall I take it off overnight?  

It is not necessary. However, it is important to give proper hygiene to the structure and place it back into the mouth. This will help to get used to it quickly.

What to expect right after placement?  

You will be getting used to it during the first day. You may have a feeling of discomfort, a feeling of a foreign body, salivation, dryness and a gag reflex. Quite soon, these sensations will be gone.

What should I clean it with?

A soft brush and low abrasion paste will be fine. You can use special cleaning solutions or visit your dentist for prophylaxis.

The denture pinches, presses and moves. Can I adjust it by myself?
If these sensations are not strong and experienced on the first day, this is a normal adjustment process. If they persist and you start feeling pain and rubbing, visit the doctor to get it adjusted.

How long will it last?  

It depends on the materials and proper hygiene. A plastic structure lasts for up to 3 years, a bugel denture - up to 15 years.

Tell about us:

Medical expert:
Leonid Yakovlevich Kusevitsky
Orhtopaedic dentist, Dr. habil. in Medicine

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