Treatment of caries
Caries is a pathological process of tooth decay. This is the most common disease affecting 98-100% of people. Unsurprisingly, caries treatment is the main reason for visiting a dental clinic.
Why does dental caries occur?
The main cause of caries is the activity of a group of bacteria, streptococci and lactobacilli, which normally live in the mouth cavity. In the course of their activity, the bacteria produce acids which destroy the enamel and eventually the dentine.
However, there needs to be a triggering mechanism present to initiate caries. Such a trigger may be:
- Poor oral hygiene.
Tooth cleaning controls the number and activity of bacteria and destroys their agglomeration - calculus.
- Dietary habits.
A diet rich in simple carbohydrates is not the cause of, but a contributing factor to caries development, since carbohydrates make a nutrient medium for the growth and multiplication of carious flora.
- Bad habits.
Smokers’ teeth have a dense and sticky stain where bacteria settle and form colonies. Tar and other substances contained in cigarette smoke have a negative effect on the oral barrier function.
- Oral dryness.
Xerostomia is a common problem which is often diagnosed in smokers, as well as people suffering from internal organ diseases and metabolic disorders, e.g. diebetes.
- Incorrect occlusion.
Crowded teeth and other occlusion conditions make cleaning the mouth cavity more difficult and contribute to tartar accumulation and calculus formation, which cause caries and gum inflammation.
- Weakened enamel and dentine.
Enamel density may be reduced for different reasons. The main factor is having a diet lacking in calcium, phosphorus and vitamins regulating their metabolism. Vegetarians and vegans are quite often found to have this problem.
Despite the presence of contributing factors, it is possible to have caries treated at an early stage. The doctors at Axioma Dental Clinic in Saint Petersburg are able to help with that. They will develop a preventive treatment plan accounting for the aggressive factors and weak links in the patient’s dental health. Early stage treatment at our clinic is carried out without tooth drilling.
Caries symptoms at different development stages
Caries is a stage-by-stage process, with each next stage being a complication of the previous one, when no treatment is provided. Caries specific symptoms and treatment methods depend on the stage:
- White spots.
White opaque spots, which are difficult to notice, appear on the tooth surface. There are no subjective symptoms, although some patients complain that their mouth feels sore.
- Surface caries.
This defect occurs within the enamel. A different color stain appears: white or yellowish brown. The stains may be dark colored in the fissures of posterior teeth.
- Medium caries.
The pathological process has crossed the enamel-dentine boundary and is on its way to the pulp. Because this boundary is the first sensitive area of the tooth, short-term pain is experienced as a reaction to temperature stimulus.
- Deep caries.
This is the last stage of caries followed by complications, i.e. pulpitis. At this stage, one can notice a carious cavity or discoloration of a part of the tooth, and dark colored dentine can be seen through the enamel. Short-term pain is experienced under the exposure to hot or cold temperatures, sweet food, etc.
Although carious cavities are formed in different areas of the tooth, they most frequently appear on the chewing and contact surfaces (between the teeth), in fissures, and in the neck area, where cleaning is difficult. The cutting edge of front teeth is affected more rarely.
Caries treatment methods
The key principle of the dentists working at Axioma Detnal Clinic is to preserve healthy tissues as much as possible and provide comfortable and painless treatment.
The treatment strategy depends on the caries stage. At an early stage, for example, methods that do not require drilling can be applied, such as remineralization or Icon.
However, if caries has crossed the dentinoenamel border, classic treatment is used, which follows the following procedure:
- Isolating the operating field - placing a rubber dam.
- Preparation (tooth drilling) to remove affected tissues.
- Antiseptic treatment of the cavity.
- Restoring the anatomical integrity of the tooth using a filling material. The doctor will reconstruct the cusps of posterior teeth and contacts. The material is selected according to the tooth color.
- Assessing restoration by checking the bite. Making corrections if necessary.
- Grinding and polishing.
Possible consequences of caries
If caries is not timely stopped, it will be progressing - transitioning from one stage to the other. Over time, this will result in a complication - pulpitis, which is inflammation of the tooth nerve. This is fraught with hardly bearable pain and costly, complicated treatment.
If pulpitis is not timely treated, the disease progresses and transitions to periodontitis. Another possible complication is periostitis (gum boil) or other severe dental infections which can pose a danger to the patient’s health or even life.
How to prevent caries
Axioma Dental Clinic’s doctors would like to invite patients for caries treatment and prophylaxis. The prophylactic program is developed after an examination taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.
Our clinic conducts preventive examinations, which include:
- Oral examination to identify caries in early stages;
- Evaluating the condition of fillings and other restorative structures;
- Professional oral hygiene - removing calculus and plaque;
- Enamel remineralization;
- Training in proper home hygiene.
We also perform treatment of caries in milk and permanent teeth using up-to date equipment and materials and making sure that there is no pain or fear.
Tell about us: